Dressed in a dark suit, Breivik smiled as he entered the courtroom and a guard removed his handcuffs. He then gave a closed-fist salute.
He later told the lead judge, Wenche Elisabeth Arntzen: "I do not recognise the Norwegian courts. You have received your mandate from political parties which support multiculturalism."
He also said he did not recognise the authority of Judge Arntzen, claiming she was friends with the sister of former Prime Minister and Labour party leader Gro Harlem Brundtland.
The judge noted the objections, which Breivik's lawyer said were not official, and said the defence could follow up on them in their opening arguments.
Breivik described his occupation as a "writer", currently working from prison.
Prosecutor Inga Bejer Engh read out the charges against him and gave an extensively detailed account of how each person was killed or injured in last year's attacks.
She said the attacks "created fear in the Norwegian population", adding: "The defendant has committed very serious crimes, on a scale which hasn't been experienced in our country in modern times."
Breivik showed no emotion, looking down at the table in front of him.
At the end of the indictment, he told the court: "I acknowledge the acts, but not criminal guilt - I claim I was doing it in self-defence."
Breivik wept as his knight's templar video manifesto played in court. Notice it shows his 'Columbine shot,' posing with an automatic weapon.
Update: The Guardian reports the self-defense plea was a translation error:
On Tuesday, the court-appointed interpreters issued a correction to their translation of Breivik's not guilty plea on Monday.
He is not claiming to have acted out of "self-defence", as originally reported, but is using a defence under section 47 of the Norwegian penal code that states: "No person may be punished for any act that he has committed in order to save someone's person or property from an otherwise unavoidable danger when the circumstances justified him in regarding this danger as particularly significant in relation to the damage that might be caused by his act."